The Pre-Contact Era (through 1513)
The history of North America from its geological formation through the first contact between American Indians and the expedition of Ponce de Leon.
- Cahokia and the Hinterlands: Middle Mississippian Cultures of the Midwest - Thomas E Emerson
- Quaternary Glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere - V. Sibrava
- John McPhee - Annals of the Former World
- The Settlement of America: Encyclopedia of Westward Expansion from Jamestown to the Closing of the Frontier - James Crutchfield
- The Vikings in North America: The History and Legacy of the Norse Settlements in Greenland and Vinland - Charles River Editors
- Algonquian Peoples of Long Island - John A. Strong
- The Navajo People and Uranium Mining - Doug Brugge
A remarkable number of well-preserved fossils have been extracted from Wyoming, including some stromatolites dated at nearly 2 billion years old.
- c.12000 B.C. - The first people arrive in what is now Alaska over the Bering Strait (then an isthmus) -- although some sources dispute this claim.
- c.1200 - Cahokia reaches its peak in population, equaling Europe's largest cities of that era.
- c.1200 - The largest Pueblo cliff-dwellings are constructed in the southwest.
- 1450-1600 - The Iroquois League is formed, uniting 5 tribes near Lake Erie and Lake Huron. The League becomes a powerful, expansionist force in the region.